I am curious to know if something like that exists.
It does not make sense to have it set globally but at some places does.
For the OOTB views the formatting goes by the user locals in the account settings and they are the basic Windows settings for date and numbers.
In portlets you can choose data type money which brings in the currency symbol.
In user created NSQL portlets the data can be formatted with the tools that the db allows to construct the format you want limited by your imagination.
For portlets the only workaround i know is to divide by 1000 and format I.e. 10,000 becomes 10.0
Then place ($K) in the title
Maybe raise an idea
You could also utalise the jaspersoft or BO reporting suite